Approved by the Council on 16 and 24 July 2022
I. ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS
National Scientific Institutions, as defined by the International Science Council (ISC), engaged in space research, and International Scientific Unions federated in ISC may become Members of COSPAR (hereafter referred as Members). COSPAR is an association under French law.
National Scientific Institutions as defined by ISC or International Scientific Unions, federated in ISC, desiring COSPAR membership shall submit their application to the President of COSPAR (hereafter referred to as President). The letter of application shall consist of a letter of intent accompanied by an information sheet giving an account of activities related to scientific space research on the territory represented by the National Scientific Institution or in the field of scientific research covered by the International Scientific Union.
Each application for membership shall be circulated to Member National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions. If no objections are raised within two months, the applicant Institution or Union shall become a Member without any further action by the date of expiration of the two-month period. In the event any objections are raised by National Scientific Institutions or International Scientific Unions, the COSPAR Bureau may ask for further information and shall submit the case to the COSPAR Council (hereafter referred to as the Council) for discussion and decision by vote. A two-thirds majority of votes cast, excluding abstentions, shall be required for the application to be approved.
II. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF COSPAR MEMBERS
To be informed about all COSPAR activities.
To make available and/or to participate in evaluating and disseminating scientific information resulting from space research.
To appoint a representative to COSPAR whose rights and duties shall include:
a) facilitating the regular flow of information between COSPAR and the National Scientific Institution or International Scientific Union which s/he represents,
b) membership in the Council, as a representative of his/her National Scientific Institution or International Scientific Union, including participation in discussions conducted in Council meetings, with voting rights on behalf of his/her Institution or Union at such meetings.
The Member National Scientific Institutions shall have voting rights on the Council on all matters. Conversely, the Member International Scientific Unions shall have voting rights on the Council only on matters that do not involve income or expenditure of money by COSPAR, or expenditure of money by the Member National Scientific Institutions.
Member International Scientific Unions shall have the right, and shall be encouraged, to appoint liaison representatives to the Executive Groups of COSPAR Scientific Commissions if, in the opinion of the International Scientific Union, this will ensure good coordination of related activities. Each Union shall be allowed one liaison representative to each Scientific Commission.
The Member National Scientific Institutions shall contribute to the financial support of COSPAR as determined by the budget recommended by the Bureau and approved by the Council. The contribution amount for a given Member National Scientific Institution shall be based on the membership category to which the Institution belongs which shall correspond to the country’s scientific space activity. Categories of membership are defined, and may be subject to revision, by the Council.
COSPAR may decide to suspend or terminate the membership of any Member when a serious reason requires such an action, e.g., a COSPAR Member violates the approved COSPAR principles.
Suspension or termination of a COSPAR Member:
1) must be based solely on the behavior of the Member;
2) requires an affirmative vote by the members of the COSPAR Council;
3) must consider whether the suspension or termination is in the best interests of COSPAR and the pursuit of its mission.
Approval of a motion for suspension or termination of a COSPAR Member, or a motion to remove suspension, requires a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council voting or abstaining at the Council meeting. Notification that a member of the Council desires to have the Council consider a suspension or termination process as defined in this Bylaw must be received two-months prior to the Council meeting.
In the event that a Member National Scientific Institution should fail to pay contributions for a three-year period, its membership will be automatically suspended until such time as all contributions in arrears are paid. Any further decision will be left to the Bureau.
III. NOMINATION COMMITTEE
The task of the COSPAR Nomination Committee (hereafter referred to as Nomination Committee) is the preparation of a list of candidates for each office to be filled. Offices to be filled are those for President, COSPAR Vice-Presidents, COSPAR Bureau Members, COSPAR Finance Committee Chair and members (hereafter referred to as Vice-Presidents, Bureau member, Finance Committee Chair).
The five members of the Nomination Committee shall be elected by the Council for a term of four years from a list of candidates to be presented by the President and which may be amended by the Council. Motions for amendments may come from the floor and must be supported, also from the floor, by at least two other members of the Council. At least two of the members of the nomination committee should be women.
Following their election, the Nomination Committee shall elect from among its members a Chair who shall be responsible for the proper functioning of the Committee. Election of the Chair shall be organized by the COSPAR Secretariat (hereafter referred to as Secretariat; see below article V.11) within three months.
The Nomination Committee may include members who are not members of the Council.
No member of the Bureau may be a member of the Nomination Committee.
Members of the Nomination Committee are not eligible for re-election immediately consecutive to their term of office, except members appointed by the President according to articles III.12 or III.13.
The lists to be prepared by the Nomination Committee shall include candidates, at least one, for each office. The lists of candidates shall include scientists from the widest possible range of both nationality and scientific expertise. These lists will be based primarily on candidates’ submissions by the National or Union Representatives, by the Commission Chairs, or on individuals identified by the Nomination Committee members.
At least 30 % of the overall number of candidates for all offices shall be women candidates, with the aim of achieving gender balance for each office.
No member of the Nomination Committee may appear on the lists of candidates presented by the Nomination Committee to the Council.
The Chair of the Nomination Committee shall ascertain whether a candidate is willing to serve as an officer of COSPAR in the post for which s/he is to be nominated. Candidates for the offices of the President and the Chair of the Finance Committee shall be asked to consider paragraphs IV.2 and IV.6, respectively, of the By-Laws before agreeing to their nomination.
The quorum of the Nomination Committee shall consist of three members in addition to the Chair.
In the event that the Chair of the Nomination Committee is unable to carry out his/her responsibilities, the President shall, in consultation with representatives of National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions, appoint a new member to the Nomination Committee. The President shall also request the Secretariat to organize the election of the new chair of the completed committee from among its members.
In the event that one or more member(s) of the Nomination Committee is (are) unable to carry out his/her (their) responsibilities, the President shall, in consultation with representatives of National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions, appoint a new member (new members) to the Nomination Committee to complete the membership to five.
IV. ELECTIONS BY THE COUNCIL
The President shall be elected for a term of four years from a list of internationally recognized space scientists submitted by the Nomination Committee to the members of the Council at least two months before the election, which will be held by correspondence or by electronic means with a deadline for receipt of voting bulletins of two weeks before the Council meeting. The Secretariat will be responsible for the practical organization of the election of the President.. Candidates will also be asked to provide a written statement to be distributed to the members of the Council in support of their candidacy. The candidates should declare any conflict-of-interest, that could be perceived as detrimental to the interests of COSPAR, in a dedicated conflict-of-interest register. The Secretariat is responsible for maintaining the conflict-of-interest register.
Upon his/her election to office, the President shall become independent and act only on behalf of COSPAR. S/he shall neither represent any of the Member National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions, nor be chair or officer of any of COSPAR’s Commissions or the Awards and Nomination committees (see below XIII.4).
Two Vice-Presidents shall be elected for a term of four years from among the representatives of the National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions from a list of nominees provided by the Nomination Committee, after consideration of the results of the election of the President. The candidates should declare any conflict-of-interest, that could be perceived as detrimental to the interests of COSPAR, in a dedicated conflict-of-interest register to be maintained by the Secretariat.
Six other members of the Bureau shall be elected for a term of four years from among the representatives of the National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions from a list (or lists) provided by the Nomination Committee. The candidates should declare any conflict-of-interest, that could be perceived as detrimental to the interests of COSPAR, in a dedicated conflict-of-interest register to be maintained by the Secretariat.
The President appoints a Coordination Officer whose task will be to oversee Inclusion, Diversity, Equity and Accessibility (IDEA) matters in COSPAR and help enforce the COSPAR IDEA policy decided by the Bureau and approved by the Council. The IDEA Coordination Officer (ICO) reports to the President and Bureau.
The Chair and members of the Finance Committee shall be elected for terms of four years from lists provided by the Nomination Committee. The candidates should declare any conflict-of-interest, that could be perceived as detrimental to the interests of COSPAR, in a dedicated conflict-of-interest register to be maintained by the Secretariat. Upon election, the Chair of the Finance Committee shall become independent and act only on behalf of COSPAR. S/he shall neither represent any of the Member National Scientific Institutions or International Scientific Unions, nor be a chair or officer of any of COSPAR’s Commissions or subsidiary bodies other than the Finance Committee.
The Secretariat will be responsible, under the authority of the Executive Director, to organize and verify the ballots, whether these are cast at the meeting or via electronic means.
Those elected shall continue to serve until their successors have been duly elected and have agreed to serve. Vacancies arising during interim periods shall be filled for the remainder of the term by nomination and election as specified in paragraphs IV.3-5 above, except for vacancy in the office of the President which shall be filled according to paragraphs V.4-6 of the By-Laws.
All officers elected by the Council may be re-elected once for a second term of four years.
At the end of their term(s) officers elected by the Council may only be elected to a higher position in the same body.
V. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF BUREAU MEMBERS
The President shall be an ex-officio member of all COSPAR Committees, Commissions, and subsidiary bodies, except the Awards Committee and the Nomination Committee.
The President shall have voting rights on the Council on all matters with the exception of matters concerning contributions by Member National Scientific Institutions. The President, as chair of the Council, shall have the casting vote in case of a voting tie, irrespective of the matter being put to vote.
The President shall preside at all meetings of the Council and the Bureau and conduct the affairs of COSPAR between such meetings. The President will work with the Bureau to define oversight responsibility for various COSPAR activities by Bureau members.
If the President is unable to carry out her/his responsibilities and if this is recognized by a three-fourth majority vote of the Bureau members, the COSPAR Executive Director (hereafter referred as Executive Director) will request a vote of the Bureau members to remove the President from her/his COSPAR duties. This vote will be by a secret ballot, with the outcome decided on a two-thirds majority.
If the Bureau acts to remove the President from his/her duties, the two Vice-Presidents shall alternate as Principal Vice-Presidents and, as such, shall assume the responsibilities of the office of the President. The office of the Principal Vice-President shall alternate every six months with the more senior Vice-President holding office during the first six months.
It shall be the responsibility of the Principal Vice-President to convene, or consult electronically with, the Council for the purpose of electing a new President.
If a Vice-President, a member of the Bureau or a member of the Finance Committee acts in a manner that is detrimental to the best interest of COSPAR and if this is recognized by a three-fourth majority vote of the Bureau members, the Executive Director will request a vote of the Bureau members to
remove the said person from her/his COSPAR duties. This vote will be by a secret ballot, with the outcome decided on a two-thirds majority.
It shall be the responsibility of the President to convene, or consult electronically with, the Council for the purpose of electing a new member Vice-President, member for the Bureau, or a member of the Finance Committee.
In the event that both, the President and the Vice-Presidents are unable to discharge their responsibilities, and if this is recognized by a three-fourth majority vote of the Bureau members, the Bureau shall take the steps necessary to ensure the continued activity of COSPAR.
Bureau members other than the President shall have voting rights on the Council in their capacity as National Scientific Institution or International Scientific Union representatives, according to paragraphs II.4 and II.5 of the By-Laws.
The President hires the Executive Director after consulting with the Bureau on his/her choice. Under the authority of the President, the Executive Director shall implement the policy and directives decided by the Bureau. By virtue of the powers vested in him or her by the Council and Bureau, the President shall be authorized to dismiss the Executive Director, subject to approval by the Bureau. The President shall delegate all necessary powers and signing authority to the Executive Director. In particular, the Executive Director will assume full responsibility for managing the COSPAR Secretariat. Under the authority of the Executive Director, the Secretariat is responsible for all day-to-day operations of COSPAR, for the planning and execution of all activities, including Assemblies and Symposia, Bureau and Council meetings, Capacity Building Workshops, and other approved activities, for overseeing all financial transactions, and for implementing the directions laid out by the President.
VI. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SCIENTIFIC COMMISSIONS
The Scientific Commissions of COSPAR serve to foster international cooperation in their respective research areas. This includes the planning of scientific events at the COSPAR Assemblies, providing information to the scientific community on these events, and reporting about its activities to the Council, the President, and the Bureau.
Scientific Commission Chairs shall be informed about and take part in all Council activities and discussions, and represent their Commissions on the Council. They may vote on the Council on all matters, including the election of the President, Vice-Presidents, and members of the Bureau, except those involving income or expenditure by COSPAR, expenditure of money by the Member National Scientific Institutions, the election of the Finance Committee Chair and members, or the decision to suspend a Member.
Scientific Commission Chairs shall ensure that the activities of their Commissions be conducted in an orderly way, including, among others, election of officers, preparation of scientific programs, publication as appropriate of the papers resulting from scientific sessions and meetings organized fully or in part by their Commissions. Care will be taken in the election of Commission and Sub-
Commission officers to ensure the widest possible range of both nationality and scientific expertise as well as an adequate gender balance.
Scientific Commission Chairs shall be required to report on the activities of their respective Commissions to the Bureau, the CSAC (see below XIII.5) and the Council, to contribute to COSPAR reports to external bodies, and to make recommendations for awards as appropriate.
In the event that the Chair of a Scientific Commission should be unable to discharge his/her responsibilities, the Executive Group of the given Scientific Commission (see paragraph XI.7 of the By-Laws) shall elect from among the Executive Group a new chair who will serve until the next regular meeting of the given Scientific Commission.
VII. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE
The Finance Committee advises the Bureau on the approval of the budget and accounts of COSPAR. The Executive Director provides on an annual basis a summary of the budget execution over the past year and the proposed budget plans for the next two years to the Finance Committee, which presents reports and recommendations on these matters to the Bureau and Council.
The Finance Committee Chair shall be informed about and take part in all Council and Bureau activities and discussions and report the recommendations of his/her Committee to the Bureau and the Council.
The Finance Committee Chair shall have voting rights on all matters on the Council, except those involving the finances of COSPAR or Member National Scientific Institutions, or the decision to suspend a Member.
The Chair shall ensure that Finance Committee activities be conducted in an orderly way, that the said Committee be fully informed at a reasonable level by the Executive Director on all aspects of COSPAR income and expenditure, and that it formulate short and long-term financial plans for submission to the Bureau and the Council.
VIII. RULES OF ORDER OF COUNCIL AND BUREAU
A quorum of the Council shall consist of not less than fifty per cent of members holding voting rights on the matter under consideration.
Any member of the Council who is prevented from attending part of the meeting (either part of a session or a complete session which is part of the meeting), may delegate his/her voting power by proxy to another member of the Council or to another representative of his/her National Scientific Institution or International Scientific Union. The President shall be notified of this act in writing (including through electronic communication means) before the beginning of the session.
Proxy holders as defined in paragraph 2 above shall be included in determining a quorum of the Council.
At Council meetings, votes may be cast only by persons who are present or accredited through the electronic voting system.
A quorum of the Bureau shall consist of not less than fifty percent of its membership. Any member of the Bureau unable to attend the Bureau meeting may delegate his/her voting power by proxy to another member of the Bureau. The President shall be notified of this act in writing before the beginning of the Bureau meeting. A vote by proxy shall not be included when determining a quorum of the Bureau. At Bureau meetings, votes may only be cast by members who are present. Electronic vote on Bureau matters is also acceptable.
Official decisions by the Council shall be made by a simple majority vote of those voting for or against each motion, except in the following cases:
1) motions as to modification or changes in the COSPAR Charter (see Charter, paragraph VI.3) or the COSPAR By-Laws;
2) financial matters pertaining to Member National Scientific Institutions;
3) motions concerning the admission of new Members in cases as defined in paragraph I.3 of the By-Laws;
4) motions to suspend a Member, or remove a suspension (see Article II.7).
In these cases, a two-thirds majority of those voting for or against the motion shall be required. For cases (1), (2) and (3) abstentions from voting shall not be considered in determining the majority action but may be entered in the records if so desired by the abstaining Council members. For case (4), abstentions shall be considered in determining the majority action. Electronic vote is acceptable.
Official decisions of the Bureau shall be made by a two-thirds majority of votes cast for or against each motion. Abstentions from the voting shall not be considered in determining the majority action but may be entered in the records if so desired by the abstaining Bureau members.
The Council shall meet at least once every two years usually during COSPAR Scientific Assemblies. Electronic votes are acceptable.
The Bureau shall normally meet once a year. Other meetings may be called by the President, as necessary. Electronic votes are acceptable.
An agenda shall be prepared by the Secretariat under the direction of the President for each meeting of the Council and the Bureau, and shall be distributed to the members of the respective body at least three weeks prior to the meeting. Amendments to the agenda for such a meeting may be proposed by any member of the respective body who is present at the meeting. These amendments may be adopted by a simple majority of votes cast, excluding abstentions. All documents relevant to expected votes must be made available at least two weeks prior to the meeting.
Bureau and Council meeting reports shall be circulated to all members of the respective bodies present at the relevant meeting for approval. If the Secretariat does not receive any specific objections or recommendations to amend the draft report within one month of the transmittal date, these reports shall be considered approved as written. Following approval, the reports of both Bureau and Council meetings shall be distributed to all members of the Council.
Any scientist or individual interested in space research becomes a COSPAR Associate by attending a COSPAR biennial Assembly, participating in COSPAR activities, or by communicating his/her interest to the Secretariat.
Each Associate shall be affiliated to at least one and not more than three of the COSPAR Scientific Commissions.
Associate status shall be retained for five years after attending a COSPAR biennial Assembly or any participation in COSPAR activities, but may be extended if the Secretariat has received updated contact information.
The rights and duties of Associates include:
a) being informed regarding, and taking part in, the scientific activities of COSPAR, in particular, the Scientific Commission(s) of which s/he is affiliated to,
b) attending the scientific meetings and the open business meetings of these Commission(s), take part in the discussions conducted therein, and
c) voting on all matters brought to a vote at these meetings.
X. ASSOCIATED SUPPORTER PROGRAM
COSPAR shall establish an Associated Supporter Program in which duly constituted legal entities or individuals are accorded honorary status. The purpose of the Program is to involve entities and persons who have relevant knowledge and expertise, and a commitment to the mission of COSPAR, in the activities of COSPAR.
Entities and persons can join the Associated Supporter Program by invitation of the President or by request in writing to the President through the Secretariat and payment of an adherence fee.
The Bureau will define the categories for participation of entities or persons in the Associated Supporter Program, and the President, acting on the advice of the Bureau, will assign the adherence fee for each category.
The Bureau will define the benefits for participation in each category, commensurate with the level of involvement with COSPAR expected.
Each entity and person participating in the Associated Supporter Program shall be recognized by COSPAR, by the category in which they participate, in its publications and public events. Participants in the Associated Supporter Program may use the title of their category in their public activities for the totality of the period for which their adherence fee is paid.
COSPAR shall establish a Committee on Industrial Relations who reports to and advises the President of COSPAR on how best to integrate the capabilities of industry into COSPAR’s activities and by doing so, to serve the interests of industry. The Members of the Committee shall be corporate officers who are responsible for strategic engagement with organizations such as COSPAR. The Members can be drawn from COSPAR Industry Partners and Industry Supporters, other industries that are affiliated with COSPAR through the Associated Supporter Program, or upon recommendation of the Committee from industries that are considering a strategic engagement with COSPAR. The Committee will meet at Assemblies and/or Symposia, or electronically. The Chair of the Committee will be appointed by the President of COSPAR who will participate in and/or receive the advice and recommendations resulting from the meetings of the Committee.
XI. SCIENTIFIC COMMISSIONS
Scientific Commissions may be established, modified, or discontinued at any time by the Council upon recommendation of the Bureau.
Scientific Commissions shall be established for indefinite periods, subject to the limitations in XI.1.
A Scientific Commission shall consist of those Associates who have declared their interest in being active in the given Scientific Commission.
Official decisions of Scientific Commissions shall be made by simple majority votes cast for or against each motion, except in the case of resolutions to be transmitted by the Council to outside parties. Such resolutions shall be endorsed in writing by a majority of the Associates of the Commission present.
Each Scientific Commission shall elect a Chair and three Vice-Chairs from among its Associates for periods not longer than four years. They shall be elected by members of the given Scientific Commission who are attending the open business meeting of the Commission. Scientific Commission Chairs and Vice-Chairs may be re-elected once for a second term of no longer than four years.
Elections shall be from a list of nominees proposed by the Executive Group of the given Scientific Commission (see XI.7 below) in consultation with that Commission’s members, and individuals elected must be confirmed by the Bureau.
The Executive Group of a Scientific Commission shall consist of the Chair, the three Vice-Chairs and the Chairs of the Sub-Commissions established by the given Scientific Commission.
Scientific Commissions shall meet normally during the COSPAR Scientific Assemblies. If necessary, the Associates can consult electronically with each other or through other means between Assemblies.
Actions by Scientific Commissions which may affect or involve individuals or groups outside COSPAR shall be subject to approval of the Bureau prior to execution.
Reports of the open business meetings of the Scientific Commissions shall be prepared by the Chairs of the Scientific Commissions and presented to the Council.
At the end of their term(s) Scientific Commission officers may only be elected to a higher position in the same body.
XII. SUB-COMMISSIONS AND TASK GROUPS
Sub-Commissions and Task Groups may be established, modified, or discontinued by Scientific Commissions. Such actions shall require both a majority vote of the Scientific Commission and approval of the Bureau.
Should two or more Scientific Commissions wish to establish, modify, or discontinue a common Sub-Commission or Task Group, approval both by majority votes cast separately in each Scientific Commission interested in the given Sub-Commission or Task Group, and by the Bureau shall be required.
A Scientific Commission may wish to withdraw from a Sub-Commission or Task Group that it has supported in common with another (other) Scientific Commission(s). For that action a majority vote of the Scientific Commission wishing to withdraw and the approval of the Bureau shall be required.
Sub-Commissions shall be established for indefinite periods, subject to the limitations in XII.1.
Each Sub-Commission shall be headed by a Chair the nomination and election procedure of whom shall be regulated by the Scientific Commission(s) which has (have) established the given Sub-Commission.
The Chair of a Sub-Commission shall be elected for a period not longer than four years. S/he may be re-elected once for a second term not longer than four years.
At the end of their term(s) Sub-Commission officers may only be elected to a higher position in the same body.
Task Groups shall be established for well-defined periods, usually for three to five years. After this time period has elapsed, the Task Group shall be automatically dissolved. However, a Task Group’s activity may be prolonged for a further well-defined period by the Bureau on the recommendation, by majority vote(s), of the Scientific Commission(s) that established the given Task Group.
Members and officers of a given Task Group shall be appointed by the Chair (Chairs) of the Scientific Commission(s) to which the Task Group belongs, subject to the approval of the Scientific Commission(s) at its (their) open business meeting(s).
Actions by Sub-Commissions and/or Task Groups which may affect or involve individuals or groups outside COSPAR shall be subject to approval both of the relevant Scientific Commission(s) and the Bureau prior to execution.
The President may form a Presidential Task Group to foster specific topics not covered by any other Sub-Commissions and/or Task Groups.
XIII. SUBSIDIARY BODIES
Panels on topics of interdisciplinary interest, or involving participation from experts from disciplines not represented within Scientific Commissions, ad hoc Committees, and other subsidiary bodies may be established, modified, or discontinued at any time by the Bureau.
The period for which the subsidiary body is established shall be determined by the Bureau. The period may be indefinite.
The Chairs, other officers (as needed), and members of subsidiary bodies shall be appointed by the Bureau for the period of the (rest of the) mandate of the subsidiary body, or four years, whichever is shorter. Chairs, officers, and members of subsidiary bodies may be re-appointed by the Bureau once for a second term lasting until the end of the mandate of the subsidiary body, or four years, whichever is shorter. In the case of highly specialized Panels additional terms shall be considered by the Bureau on an exceptional basis.
Among the subsidiary bodies of COSPAR there shall be a Committee on Publications, a Committee on Awards, and a Committee on Industrial Relations. These shall be standing committees (i.e. established for indefinite periods).
A COSPAR Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC) is established to advise the President and Bureau on scientific matters. The CSAC membership and terms of office are determined with due consideration of scientific expertise, nationality, gender balance and diversity by the President who informs the Bureau. The Vice-Presidents and Scientific Commission and Panel Chairs are members of the CSAC. The President chairs the CSAC and defines the agenda of its annual meetings. The President reports to the Bureau on the findings and recommendations of the CSAC meetings.
Following election or re-election, the President convenes a seminar involving Bureau members, selected members of the CSAC, COSPAR journal editors and a group of COSPAR-supportive individuals, with a view to analyzing the COSPAR status and evolution and to determine a course of
actions for his/her forthcoming term. The findings and recommendations of the seminar form the basis on which to establish a Strategic Plan that is submitted for comment to the next CSAC meeting and for approval and further implementation by the President, Bureau, Secretariat and other appropriate COSPAR bodies.
XIV. OTHER RULES
The Bureau and/or the Council may, in accordance with the COSPAR Charter and By-Laws, establish further rules governing COSPAR activities and change or invalidate existing ones. Such actions shall become effective immediately unless specified otherwise.
Any rules decided on and decisions taken, changed, or invalidated by the Bureau shall be reported to the Council at the next regular Council Meeting.
All rules decided on and decisions taken, changed, or invalidated by the Bureau and/or the Council shall be entered into a Management Procedures reference, which will be adopted by the Bureau, and document the processes that COSPAR Secretariat will follow in the management of COSPAR activities.
XV. CHANGES IN THE BY-LAWS
Rules for changing the COSPAR By-Laws shall be the same as those of changing the COSPAR Charter (see Section VI of the Charter), with the exception that approval of ISC shall not be required. Changes shall be effective immediately upon close of the Council meeting at which approval occurs, unless specified otherwise.